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Naamah as illustrated by the artist Genzoman
Agrat Bat Mahlat
Naamah or Na'amah (Hebrew: נעמה, meaning pleasant) is a figure in the Bible and Jewish mysticism. In Gnostic Kabbalah, she is called Nahemah. She is described as being an angel of prostitution, and one of the succubi mates of the archangel Samael in Zoharistic Qabalah. Her fellow succubi are Lilith, Eisheth Zenunium, and Agrat Bat Mahlat. She is also known as the mother of divination. She is also generally regarded as being the daughter of Lamech but how she became a demon is unclear.
Naamah comes from Hebrew: נעם naim and means pleasant.
The meaning of her name is argued among Hebrew scholars; it refers either to her virtuous nature ("pleasing" to God (YHVH) or to a penchant for idolatry (singing "pleasant" songs to pagan idols).
In the Zohar
Naamah appears in the Zohar as one of the mates of the archangel Samael. She, along with Lilith, causes epilepsy in children. According to Zohar she is a succubus and fallen angel, and is generally regarded as an aspect or relation of Lilith. After Cain killed Abel, Adam separated from Eve for 130 years. During this time, two female spirits, Lilith and Naamah would visit Adam and bear his children, who became the Plagues of Mankind. (Zohar 3:76b-77a)
Also according to Zohar, Naamah corrupted Aza and Azael. (Zohar: Genesis: Chapter XXXII)
In the Bible
In the Bible, Naamah is mentioned only one time, in Genesis 4:22. The NIV states: “Lamech married two women, one named Adah and the other Zillah…. Zillah also had a son, Tubal-Cain, who forged all kinds of tools out of bronze and iron. Tubal-Cain's sister was Naamah.” Although this Lamech is said to be a descendant of Cain, he has sometimes been confused with Lamech among the descendants of Seth, an ancestor of Noah.
Other Religious References
- Naamah is named as the wife of Noah and a daughter of Enoch, Noah's grandfather, in the mediaeval midrash Book of Jasher Chapter 5:15
- The 17th century theologian John Gill identified Naamah instead with the name of the wife of Ham, son of Noah, whom he believed may have become confused with Noah's wife. See Wives aboard the Ark.
- Naamah, a city of Canaan, listed in the Book of Joshua (at 15:41), as having been conquered and subsequently settled by the Tribe of Judah. The city may possibly have been a tributary of the Canaanite royal city of Makkedah.
- Naamah, an Ammonite wife of King Solomon, and mother of his heir, Rehoboam, according to both 1 Kings 14:21, 31, and 2 Chronicles 12:13. She is the only one of Solomon's wives to be mentioned, within the Tanakh, as having borne a child.